Wednesday, October 12, 2022

Misuse of AI

One of the major concerns that people have expressed over the years with AI is the potential for misuse. There are many areas in which AI is proving to be very beneficial. At the same time, it has the potential to be used in a way that is beyond the ethical and moral issues we normally focus on.

It took less than six hours for a drug-developing AI to invent 40,000 potentially lethal molecules. Researchers put AI, normally used to search for helpful drugs, into a kind of “bad actor” mode to show how easily it could be abused at a biological arms control conference.[1]

Another example is how video footage and pictures captured without people’s knowledge are misused. There is recording everywhere now, and in some scenarios, when it is combined with AI has been used to collect information about individuals without their knowledge. If you use a smartphone, you know that every moment is already captured. The places you visited, the things you searched, and even your conversation are captured.  We all have a digital footprint, and daily it is increasing with the data we provide from our smartphones and smart devices.  

Many of us have encountered this problem of advertisements showing up on something we discussed with someone a few days ago.  These days I am tired of the Ads on YouTube pushing some political agenda. I normally see Ads that do not match my views. The same things have been repeated so often that, at times, I feel like it is similar to the technique used by some regimes to brainwash people by repetition.

In most cases, AI is used to achieve marketing goals. It is when it starts to manipulate and control people that it becomes an issue. We need to be careful, but we also need people who AI to be responsible and accountable. This is where I feel government regulations may help. The sad part of it is that many governments around the world itself are misusing AI to advance their agenda. It is a challenging issue to find a solution. An awareness of this issue would help us to be careful when we give out our private data to big companies with no second thought.  

Wednesday, October 5, 2022

AI Tutors


The use of AI is increasing in many fields, and it is more visible in some areas than others. We are already using AI without realizing on knowing about it. If you use voice assistants like Alexa, Siri, or Google Home, you are already using AI. Entertainment streaming apps, smart input keyboards, security surveillance cameras, and navigation apps already have AI.   

The use of AI in education is making a lot of progress. A cousin of IBM's Jeopardy-winning Watson, Jill is an AI-enabled teaching assistant who can answer student questions about a particular class and curriculum. This was mainly used to answer questions in a right or wrong way.

New developments point to AI being used as tutors who can do more than answer questions. The Walden AI-powered tutor, named Julian™, is built with Google Cloud's AI and machine learning (ML) capabilities, driving personalized experiences and knowledge mastery through various educational engagement activities.

I feel that if more developments and improvements are made in this field, it has the potential to help solve the issue of the shortage of teachers. I do not think teachers will be replaced but can assist with many activities involved with teaching. It will be interesting to see the new developments in the field of education using AI.

Wednesday, September 28, 2022

AI Law on Employment Practices

Bias in AI has been an issue that has raised a lot of concerns. There have been instances where human bias has been carried over to AI algorithms and has impacted the decision-making process.  One area where it had an impact was in reviewing resumes and vetting out candidates.

In November 2021, New York City council passed a law on automated employment decision tools, which goes into effect from January 1st, 2023. The law prohibits the use of an automated employment decision tool to screen a candidate or employee for an employment decision unless:

  1. The tool has been the subject of a Bias Audit;
  2. The Bias Audit has been completed no more than one year before the use of the tool;
  3. A summary of the results of the most recent bias audit is made publicly available on the employer’s website before using the tool.

You can read more details about how this law applies here - https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/nyc-artificial-intelligence-law-on-5739723/

Tuesday, September 20, 2022

AI Predicting Labor Outcomes

AI research is focused on many areas. There is a lot of research going on in medical science. Many updates are coming out every week, and what caught my attention last week is from Mayo Clinic research. 

There is work in progress to predict in real-time whether someone in labor will experience a successful vaginal delivery with positive health outcomes for both the mother and baby.

There are labor charts that monitor the progress of labor, but they can miss many factors. This AI model is supposed to use a lot more data points. The algorithms were trained to take into account more than 700 variables related to labor and delivery.

More details and the news release is here - Mayo Clinic study shows successful labor outcomes in expectant mothers using AI - Mayo Clinic News Network

Tuesday, September 13, 2022

AI predicting cardiac arrests ten years in advance

AI and Cardiac Arrests
Many advancements are happening in the field of medical science using AI. I have shared some of them in earlier posts. One development that caught my attention recently is about researchers at Johns Hopkins University developing an AI approach they say can help predict if and when a person could die of cardiac arrest based on imaging scans of the heart. 

AI can analyze the scar tissue patterns that develop in the cardiac muscles over time due to heart disease. The AI could predict a person's risk up to ten years in advance. The research paper is published in Nature Cardiovascular Research.

If you are interested in more details, you can find them AI Cardiac arrests

Another related development from Mayo Clinic last year was AI spotting early-stage heart disease in routine EKG data. 


Tuesday, September 6, 2022

Answering questions at your funeral

When a person dies, they leave behind memories for others. Some of them are good, and some may not be that great. We still read and learn about many people who lived centuries ago through history or writing. There is a natural acceptance that the person who died will not come back, and people move on after a period of grieving. One to three generations may know and talk about previous generations.

Now let us get to something new, which is related to AI. Using AI, there is a new way to have the dead person talk and answer questions. It is not some sorcery or speaking to spirits. The video is recorded in advance and used during memorial or funeral service. With the help of AI, the dead person will address the questions which people ask and will talk to people. An AI tool called StoryFile enabled funeral attendees to interact in a real conversation.

The technology creates the illusion of a real-time conversation. StoryFile made its services available in the UK recently, while the service has been open to US-based customers since early 2021. People have raised concerns about this technology, but I see this as an improved version of existing things. Once I saw a funeral in which a message spoken by the dead person during someone else funeral service was played. Everyone could see the deceased person preach at his funeral service. We continue to see videos and photos of people who have passed away. With the help of AI, the tool makes it more interactive, and there is no real conversation with the dead person.

It raises questions about how we view things once a person dies. Different religions and cultures have a different takes on this issue. It will depend on a person's worldview regarding how they will react to such technological developments. Some will say let us leave the dead in peace and have memories. It can torment some to be repeatedly exposed to the deceased person through video or interactive technology. It can create phycological issues and make someone think the person is not dead. It can create pain and develop different challenges.  

As AI progress, I am expecting more tools to come that will raise a lot of questions like this. In many cases, your worldview and how you view life will influence how you view and react to these things. For now, do not be surprised if you go to a memorial or funeral service and see the dead person come and answer your questions. It is just a technology behind the scene. Humans have not reached the point where they can bring back the dead to talk in reality. 


Some links for more details. 

Gravitas: Dead woman 'addresses' mourners at her own memorial service

Dead woman talks to 'shocked' mourners at her own funeral — using AI


Tuesday, August 30, 2022

Knowledge of God vs AI

The knowledge of God or omniscience is a mental attribute that refers to the ability to know everything. Grudem in Systematic Theology has described that as “God fully knows himself and all things actual and possible in one single and eternal act.”[1] 

According to Don Hoffman in The Divine Attributes: Exploring the Philosophy of Religion, “it is the sort of knowledge that a maximally great being would possess.”[2] The quality of knowing everything is called “omniscience.” Since God is all-knowing, he is omniscient. Though God is infinite or unlimited, he knows himself fully. God possesses infinite intelligence. According to David Clark in To Know and Love God,

God's knowledge is what God rightly believes as true. God is omniscient; he possesses infinite intelligence. God's knowledge— his grasp of the way things are— is fully adequate, both extensively and intensively. He comprehensively knows all facts, and his grasp of them constitutes a conceptual framework that is as complex as reality itself. God's exhaustive knowledge represents the fullest possible grasp of truth.[3]

The Bible states that only the Spirit of God can comprehend the thoughts of God. Humans can only understand the things freely given by God through his Spirit to understand.

These things God has revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God. For who knows a person's thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. (1 Cor. 2:10-12)

God knows all things that exist and all things that will happen. God’s knowledge also makes him know all things possible. The universe God created is very complex, and humanity is still trying to figure out the details. The knowledge of humans about the universe has increased with advancements in science and technology, but that has also left humankind with more questions. There are many possibilities within the creation, and only God knows all those possibilities. God himself says that as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are his ways and thoughts higher than human ways (Isa. 55:9).

Nothing is hidden from God, and he knows every tiny detail of a person. Jesus said that God knows the needs of a person even before they ask him (Matt. 10:30). David, when reflecting on the knowledge of God, thinks that He knows human thoughts and actions.

O Lord, you have searched me and known me! You know when I sit down and when I rise up; you discern my thoughts from afar. You search out my path and my lying down and are acquainted with all my ways. Even before a word is on my tongue, behold, O Lord, you know it altogether. For you formed my inward parts; you knitted me together in my mother's womb. I praise you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Wonderful are your works; my soul knows it very well.
My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately woven in the depths of the earth. Your eyes saw my unformed substance;
in your book were written, every one of them, the days that were formed for me, when as yet there was none of them. (Ps. 139:1-4;13-16)

In order to challenge the full knowledge of God, some objections are raised, pointing to the places where God says he will not remember the sins of people (Isa. 43:25). According to Grudem, “this does not mean that there is a limit to the knowledge of God. This means that God will not let the knowledge of our sins play any part in the way he relates to us.”[4] God still knows a person’s past and the sin committed. Forgiveness of sin by God does not erase the sin from God’s memory, or this does not mean God has no way to know that anymore. God will not hold that against a person anymore. So, this argument does not limit or challenge the knowledge of God.

Human knowledge is limited when compared to God’s knowledge. As children grow, they gain knowledge through education and experiences. The knowledge gained is limited. Modern technology has augmented or added knowledge in humans with the availability of data on the internet, which can be easily accessed. According to Bernard Marr, “The amount of data we produce every day is truly mind-boggling. There are 2.5 quintillion bytes of data created each day at our current pace, but that pace is only accelerating with the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT). Over the last two years alone, 90 percent of the data in the world was generated.”[5] Anyone can access these details by simply searching on a search engine, but this is limited to what has already been known to humans and made available on the internet. Hence the knowledge of humans cannot be compared to that of God. AI is based on information that is already made available and does not gain or generate any new knowledge. AI can process data and do calculations faster and predict outcomes based on historical data. These capabilities of AI cannot be compared to the knowledge of the creator God.



[1] Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 190.

[2] Joshua Hoffman and Gary S. Rosenkrantz, The Divine Attribute: Exploring the Philosophy of Religion (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 111.

[3] David K. Clark, To Know and Love God: Method for Theology (Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books, 2003), 355.

[4] Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 192.

[5] Bernard Marr, “How Much Data Do We Create Every Day? The Mind-Blowing Stats Everyone Should Read” Forbes, accessed January 5, 2020, https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2018/05/21/how-much-data-do-we-create-every-day-the-mind-blowing-stats-everyone-should-read/#f8e152460ba9.

Tuesday, August 23, 2022

Transhumanism - Human 2.0

Transhumanism is the belief or theory that the human race can evolve beyond its current physical and mental limitations, especially by utilizing science and technology. At times it is also referred to as Human 2.0. There is a viewpoint that humans can change or upgrade them to be cyborgs- part human and part machine.

The topic of posthumanism and transhumanism are important in AI discussions. Scott A. Midson discusses this topic and states that,

"Closer analysis of the teleology of transhumanism, however, reveals a concrete vision of the movement that can be regarded as slightly yet significantly different to the undergirding substantive interpretation of the human. While this foundational assumption of human nature can be used to link Christianity, humanism and transhumanism, the transhumanist vision of the future reveals a more nuanced understanding of the human that may compete with the Christian eschatological vision."[1]
"Many transhumanists wish to follow life paths which would, sooner or later, require growing into posthuman persons: they yearn to reach intellectual heights as far above any current human genius as humans are above other primates; resistant to disease and impervious to aging; to have unlimited youth and vigor; to exercise control over their own desires, moods, and mental states; to be able to avoid feeling tired, hateful, or irritated about petty things; to have an increased capacity for pleasure, love, artistic appreciation, and serenity; to experience novel states of consciousness that current human brains cannot access."[2]

The ultimate goal of transhumanists is to use technology to bring a primarily humancentric utopia in which humans are fundamentally changed and may not be regarded as humans in the sense it is understood today. Transhumanists are looking to change or alter humans to become posthuman. One of its goals is to find more meaning and happiness in life. The questions like where we came from, how did we reach here, where we are going, and how we reach our destination are all relevant in this discussion. Religious beliefs and other systems answer these questions in different ways. Christianity points it to a creator God who created humans in His image with a purpose.  

We live in an age of upgrades. Most of the things we own now need frequent upgrades. An upgrade is a standard way of life. Many people cannot live with outdated stuff based on what the companies sell them. In some cases, I feel the innovation has reached a point where these companies are struggling to give a compelling reason to upgrade except by adding something which is not that essential or valuable for the ordinary person. The same logic is now applied to humans in the sense that augmented humans can be upgraded to overcome some of the limits currently experienced. 

Many things can be written and discussed on this topic, starting with the origin and meaning of life. I hope this small introduction to this topic will trigger some interest in thinking and addressing this issue in the realms where you have an opportunity. Transhumanists and Christians view humans in different ways. Transhumanists depending upon the advancements already made in technology, hope to reach a point where we will see the next version of humans. Christianity teaches that a human's final destiny is not to become a cyborg but to spend eternity with their creator. These two views stand in contrast to each other. My research has shown that many people have volunteered to be part of any trials to become human 2.0. It also reflects the trend of our culture to some extent and will continue. We have to be ready to address this issue.

As I have written, we are augmented by technology, and we have the power of Google to search and find anything. Transhumanism takes it to another level to alter what it means to be a human.



[1] Scott A Midson, Cyborg Theology: Humans, Technology and God (London: I.B. Tauris, 2018), 76.

[2] “See the official Transhumanist website for a deeper explanation of the posthuman at humanityplus.org under faqs”

Tuesday, August 16, 2022

Challenges with AI

AI has gained popularity in recent years, and its usage has gone up way more than the general public is realizing. Just like exponential technological advancements seen in recent years, AI applications have also grown. Many technology companies are pursuing AI and looking for ways to incorporate it to automate business processes.

According to James Vincent, AI Research and Development are booming, but general intelligence is still out of reach. After reviewing the AI Index 2019 Annual Report, he has highlighted the main trends in AI.[1] AI research has gained much momentum, and “Between 1998 and 2018, there has been a 300 percent increase in the publication of peer-reviewed papers on AI. Attendance at conferences has also surged; the biggest, NeurIPS, is expecting 13,500 attendees this year, up 800 percent from 2012.” 

AI education is also growing, with over twenty-one percent of computer science PhDs related to AI. AI algorithms are also becoming faster and cheaper to train. The report finds that “The AI Index team noted that the time needed to train a machine vision algorithm on a popular dataset (ImageNet) fell from around three hours in October 2017 to just 88 seconds in July 2019. Costs also fell, from thousands of dollars to double-digit figures.” Private investment in AI-related research has also increased. He concluded that, when thinking about AI limitations and promises, it’s good to remember the words of machine learning pioneer Andrew Ng: “If a typical person can do a mental task with less than one second of thought, we can probably automate it using AI either now or in the near future.” We’re just beginning to find out what happens when those seconds are added up.[2]

General AI is still not there. There are many benefits of AI, which have been realized in many fields and noticeably in medical science. Robots are used in performing surgery. Recently there was a report of AI systems outperforming medical experts in spotting breast cancer. Software developed by Google Health could make breast screening more effective and help in places there is a shortage of radiologists.[3] Later another report came out, which highlights the issue with such systems. A new study from Google seems to show the promise of AI-assisted health care, and it shows the threat as well. This study concluded that AI makes bad medicine even worse.[4]

As the use of AI is increasing in daily life, there are ethical and relational issues that the church and ministers cannot ignore. As the researcher had some conversations with a few ministers before starting this project, it was evident that the church at large needs to be made aware of the issues raised by AI and how to respond to the questions raised by the younger generation. One person made the comment that at the end of the day, a computer has to be unplugged to stop AI. With the biblical and literature review of literature conducted in this project, it is evident that the issue of AI is of unplugging a computer. As AI augments humans and the capability of machines, it is essential to set limits and have strong policies per the commands given by God in the Bible. Any advancements which are in rebellion with God’s law and intent for humans will result in a judgment and undesired consequences. Therefore, there is a need for a biblical framework to address some of the challenges posed by AI.

[1] Raymond Perrault, Yoav Shoham, Erik Brynjolfsson, Jack Clark, John Etchemendy, Barbara Grosz, Terah Lyons, James Manyika, Saurabh Mishra, and Juan Carlos Niebles, The AI Index 2019 Annual Report (Stanford, CA: AI Index Steering Committee, Human-Centered AI Institute, 2019).

[2] James Vincent, “AI R&D is booming, but general intelligence is still out of reach,” The Verge, December 12, 2019, accessed December 29, 2019, https://www.theverge.com/2019/12/12/21010671/ai-index-report-2019-machine-learning-artificial-intelligence-data-progress.

[3] Ian Sample, “AI system outperforms experts in spotting breast cancer,” The Guardian, January 1, 2020, accessed January 5, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/jan/01/ai-system-outperforms-experts-in-spotting-breast-cancer.

[4] Christie Aschwanden, “Artificial Intelligence Makes Bad Medicine Even Worse,” Wired, January 10, 2020, accessed January 10, 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/artificial-intelligence-makes-bad-medicine-even-worse.


Tuesday, August 9, 2022

AI tool could catch pancreatic cancer in advance

Let me start this post with a word of advice! 

As we have more access to information in this age, our awareness of different issues has grown exponentially. The challenge is to filter the information flow since there is much fake information. False information can create anxiety and cause depression and anger.

One area in which we hear a lot of news nowadays is health. I know of people whose primary doctor is Google search. Due to the abundance of information, please really get confused. I heard an incident where a patient challenged the doctor’s prescription because their research online taught them things that even the doctor did not know. One thing we have to remember is that people usually post bad experiences more than good experiences. I know that we will not make an effort unless an incentive is given to write or post about positive and great experiences. If we experience something wrong, we do not need any encouragement and will be willing to spend our time.

We have to be careful with the source we read. I came across an article that states that the “most common and deadliest type of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, carries a five-year survival rate of less than 10%. Studies have shown that early detection can improve that rate by up to 50%, but there aren’t yet any reliable, widely used methods to catch the cancer early.”

The researchers at Cedars-Sinai recently published in the journal Cancer Biomarkers that they have developed an artificial intelligence tool that showed promise in detecting pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using imaging data collected up to three years before an official diagnosis. Researchers are gathering pre-diagnostic CT scans from thousands more patients across the U.S. to continue validating the AI. It will be an exciting development if it becomes successful. Understanding the potential of AI, and as I have shared in the past, I think there are many areas where AI could benefit humans. Even as I write and try to bring awareness about the issues with AI, I am also equally interested in sharing things that are positive and have the potential to be very helpful to ordinary people.

 You can read more about it here -  https://www.fiercebiotech.com/medtech/cedars-sinai-ai-analyzes-ct-scans-catch-pancreatic-cancer-years-advance-study

Friday, August 5, 2022

AI in Patient Care - Who will play the game?

One of the areas where AI was expected and is making progress is the medical field. Recently I came across a scenario where robotic surgery was recommended by the doctor. I discussed in detail what will the robot do. Knowing how AI works, I was concerned if the robot would do the whole procedure. 

The doctor explained how she would manage and guide the procedure.  Basically, they explained to me that it would be like a video game, and they would play it and the robot will be performing the actions. My question was if they knew how the play it well. They assured me that they know it very well. The primary doctor admitted that it is too early to use AI for these things. She was very much interested in this topic and does research on it. We had a good discussion about my background in AI and theology research.

Now that does not mean AI in patient care is not possible. There are many areas where it is being used. AI is improving the efficiency and quality of care on many fronts, starting with administration. AI is being used to help reduce the burden on nurses who have to deal with many administrative and regulatory tasks along with patient care. It can help with greater accuracy with diagnosis as it can be used to evaluate many types of imaging tests  — X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, and echocardiograms. 

There are many areas in medicine and patient care that can benefit from AI, but also many challenges.  I came across a few articles which highlight them. If you are interested in reading more about it, please visit the links below. I hope that someday we will see the benefits of using AI in patient care realized more than we see today. This could help people in many ways. For that to happen, I still think a lot of research and innovation must occur before there is confidence in these solutions.

Otherwise, people like me will ask, "Who will play the game - Doctor or AI?" If AI, then I am unsure how confident I will be based on what I know.

Artificial intelligence and the future of medicine

Doctors Find Artificial Intelligence is the Best Prescription for Expert Assistance and Patient Care


Tuesday, April 5, 2022

AI in Health Care

 

Robots are used for surgical procedures for many years now.  I was told by one of my friends a few years ago that for a procedure he underwent, robots were used. There are still people who have concerns about this and who opt out of robots performing the procedure for them. There are also people who think robots are better than humans for this purpose as they will be more accurate and less likely to make mistakes like humans.

AI-driven surgical robots are gaining prominence in healthcare. There are big technology companies investing in this area and there is tremendous growth seen in North America. 

As technology and algorithms used for this purpose get better, we may see this trend growing and in many cases will be beneficial for people.  I am sharing this blog for awareness purposes.

If you are more interested in reading more about this trend please visit the link for more in-depth details on this topic - Companies In The Artificial Intelligence In Healthcare (globenewswire.com)

Friday, April 1, 2022

Al, Deep Fakes and Mind Conditioning

Those familiar with technology may have heard the word Deep fakes. From Wikipedia-

Deepfakes (a portmanteau of "deep learning" and "fake") are synthetic media in which a person in an existing image or video is replaced with someone else's likeness. While the act of faking content is not new, Deep fakes leverage powerful techniques from machine learning and artificial intelligence to manipulate or generate visual and audio content with a high potential to deceive. The main machine learning methods used to create Deep fakes are based on deep learning and involve training generative neural network architectures, such as autoencoders or generative adversarial networks (GANs).

Now adding AI to the Deep fakes can be compelling ad can be used in a way that can be dangerous.
According to reports, it is used for morally and ethically wrong purposes.

It can be used for mind manipulation or conditioning to accomplish selfish ambitions. We have heard how algorithms are already learning about people and providing news feeds accordingly. It can also manipulate and present only what a media outlet or social media company wants people to read. This way, it can be used to control or condition minds. In mind manipulation, repeated exposure is a technique that works.

This issue has come to focus once again with Ukraine and Russia conflict, which is going on now. If you are interested to read more about it, then you can read this - Russiauses artificial intelligence, Deep fakes in propaganda warfare.

Tuesday, March 8, 2022

Human and Machine Relationship

According to Zara Stone, “On October 25, 2017, a delicate-looking woman with doe-brown eyes and long fluttery eyelashes made international headlines.” [1] Sophia, a robot, was granted full citizenship of Saudi Arabia, the first robot in the world to achieve such a status. Sophia's announcement was a calculated publicity stunt to generate headlines. A Chinese man married a robot he built himself.[2] Companies are selling AI sex robots that integrate internet technology, interactive voice system, sensing technology, mechanical and electrical integration technology.[3] The pursuit of sexual pleasure is used as justification for the development and use of AI, and it is used for sexual purposes. AI started to become better with the use of machine learning techniques. The recent AI boom is triggered by the use of the deep learning technique, a type of machine learning that trains a computer to perform tasks that are typically done by humans. It includes speech recognition, image identification, and predictive analysis. The data is not organized to run through predefined equations. The deep learning sets up basic parameters about the data and is used to train the computer to learn on its own by recognizing patterns using many layers of processing. Many practical applications of AI came to the mainstream as a result of the use of deep learning techniques.[4] The topic of posthumanism and transhumanism are important in AI discussions. Scott A. Midson discusses this topic and states,

Closer analysis of the teleology of transhumanism, however, reveals a concrete vision of the movement that can be regarded as slightly yet significantly different to the undergirding substantive interpretation of the human. While this foundational assumption of human nature can be used to link Christianity, humanism and transhumanism, the transhumanist vision of the future reveals a more nuanced understanding of the human that may compete with the Christian eschatological vision.[5]

The ultimate goal of transhumanists is to use technology to bring a mostly humancentric utopia in which humans are fundamentally changed and may not be regarded as humans in the sense it is understood today.

Noreen L. Herzfeld addresses the issue of the human and computer relationship. If robots turn toward humans and elicit from humans a relational response, does this constitute an authentic human-computer relationship? While robots may engage their human counterparts in speech, it is quite clear that they cannot engage in the reciprocal self-declaration for real encounters. Moreover, Herzfeld states that “mutual aid and intentionality remain distant dreams. Any relationality that humans exhibit toward computers in their current state of development is mere projection and anthropomorphism, no different than the fact that many people talk to their cars or become angry at desktop monitors when the system crashes.” [6] Everyone recognizes in their hearts that these are not authentic relationships, and these are not real.

The human-computer relationships will never be analogous to, nor an adequate substitute for, human-human relationships because humans and computers lack the common ground of a relationship with God on which to meet. A relationship with God provides the basis for a mutual self-disclosure and aid that can be understood and accepted.



[1] Zara Stone, “Everything You Need to Know About Sophia, The World's First Robot Citizen,” Forbes, November 7, 2017, accessed October 29, 2019, https://www.forbes.com/sites/zarastone/2017/11/07/everything-you-need-to-know-about-sophia-the-worlds-first-robot-citizen/#1367f7ec46fa.    

[2] “Chinese man 'marries' robot he built himself,” The Guardian, April 4, 2017, accessed October 29, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/04/chinese-man-marries-robot-built-himself.

[3] “About Us,” Robot Companion, accessed October 30, 2019, https://www.robotcompanion.ai/about-us.

[4] Michael Copeland, “What’s the Difference Between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning?” NVIDIA, July 29, 2016, accessed October 29, 2019, https://blogs.nvidia.com/blog/2016/07/29/whats-difference-artificial-intelligence-machine-learning-deep-learning-ai.

[5] Scott A Midson, Cyborg Theology: Humans, Technology and God (London: I.B. Tauris, 2018), 76.

[6] Herzfeld, In Our Image: Artificial Intelligence and the Human Spirit, 91.

Misuse of AI

One of the major concerns that people have expressed over the years with AI is the potential for misuse. There are many areas in which AI is...